Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement
The Mitral Valve, also known as the Bicuspid Valve with two valve leaflets, lies between the Left Atrium and the Left Ventricle serving as a doorway opening into the Left Ventricle allowing the blood to move in one direction from the Left Atrium to the Left Ventricle.
Since it is subject to the highest pressure difference, it is the valve that is most commonly diseased. Common causes of mitral valve disease are:
- Rheumatic heart disease
- Ischemic heart disease
- Degenerative heart disease
- Congenital heart disease
- Infective Endocarditis
These diseases cause the opening of the valve to either become narrowed (mitral stenosis) or become incompetent allowing the blood to leak back into the Left Atrium (mitral regurgitation).
Mitral valve repair is a surgical procedure where the diseased mitral valve is debrided of all diseased tissue and restored to its previous, natural and functional state. It allows the surgeon to preserve the original valve of the patient.
Whereas, mitral valve replacement is a surgical procedure where the diseased mitral valve is completely excised and replaced with artificial, man-made heart valve prosthesis. This prosthesis can be of biologic or metallic origins.